First, for technical analysts who identify trends based on chart movements, it is important to understand why values are the way they are. Starting with the lowest value, it would be prudent to identify what cause the value to go so low. If it is a one time even, you know what to watch out for going forward. However, if it is a recurring event, you may be better prepared going forward.
On the flip side of the equation, you want to understand what drove the highest of values on the chart. Begin to look at the media briefings as they can offer an insight to potential factors. If the highest price comes after a one off event, you may want to omit that in your studies and research going forward.
Secondly, you can look at the highest and lowest values when you are fundamentally researching companies. Ratios specifically can offer differing opinions between competitors within the same industry. The ratios you are looking at may be low due to one off factors, and same with the high values, either way though you need to be prepared because those events may not happen again which means the extreme values might be an outlier.
Knowing the values of what you are researching is important and should be taken seriously. There is quite a bit of context behind these and can assist you going forward. Here are Macroaxis, there are several tools to assist you in narrowing your research and finding minimal data.