International Z Score

IBM Stock  USD 125.29  1.92  1.56%   
Altman Z Score is one of the simplest fundamental models to determine how likely your company is to fail. The module uses available fundamental data of a given equity to approximate the Altman Z score. Altman Z Score is determined by evaluating five fundamental price points available from the company's current public disclosure documents. Check out International Business Piotroski F Score and International Business Valuation analysis. To learn how to invest in International Stock please use our How to Invest in International Business guide.
International Business Return on Invested Capital is very stable at the moment as compared to the past year. International Business reported last year Return on Invested Capital of 0.029. As of 26th of March 2023, Invested Capital is likely to grow to about 85.9 B, while Capital Expenditure is likely to drop (2 B). International Business Net Income Common Stock is very stable at the moment as compared to the past year. International Business reported last year Net Income Common Stock of 1.64 Billion. As of 26th of March 2023, Net Loss Income from Discontinued Operations is likely to grow to about 154.3 M, while Selling General and Administrative Expense is likely to drop about 18.5 B.

International Z Score Analysis

International Business' Z-Score is a simple linear, multi-factor model that measures the financial health and economic stability of a company. The score is used to predict the probability of a firm going into bankruptcy within next 24 months or two fiscal years from the day stated on the accounting statements used to calculate it. The model uses five fundamental business ratios that are weighted according to algorithm of Professor Edward Altman who developed it in the late 1960s at New York University..
 2020 2021 2022 2023 (projected)
Consolidated Income5.59 B5.74 B1.64 B1.68 B
Direct Expenses38.05 B25.86 B27.84 B39.73 B
Z Score 
Sum Of  
5 Factors 
More About Z Score | All Equity Analysis

Current International Business Z Score

Most of International Business' fundamental indicators, such as Z Score, are part of a valuation analysis module that helps investors searching for stocks that are currently trading at higher or lower prices than their real value. If the real value is higher than the market price, International Business Machines is considered to be undervalued, and we provide a buy recommendation. Otherwise, we render a sell signal.
First Factor
1.2 * (
Working Capital
Total Assets )
Second Factor
1.4 * (
Retained Earnings
Total Assets )
Thrid Factor
3.3 * (
Total Assets )
Fouth Factor
0.6 * (
Market Value of Equity
Total Liabilities )
Fifth Factor
0.99 * (
Total Assets )

International Z Score Driver Correlations

Understanding the fundamental principles of building solid financial models for International Business is extremely important. It helps to project a fair market value of Ford stock properly, considering its historical fundamentals such as Z Score. Since International Business' main accounts across its financial reports are all linked and dependent on each other, it is essential to analyze all possible correlations between related accounts. However, instead of reviewing all of International Business' historical financial statements, investors can examine the correlated drivers to determine its overall health. This can be effectively done using a conventional correlation matrix of International Business' interrelated accounts and indicators.
To calculate Z-Score one would need to know current working capital of the company, its total assets, and liabilities, amount of latest retained earnings as well as earnings before interest and tax. Z-Score can be used to compare the odds of bankruptcy of companies in a similar line of business or firms operating in the same industry. Companies with Z-Scores above 3.1 are generally considered to be stable and healthy with a low probability of bankruptcy. Scores that fall between 1.8 and 3.1 lie in a so-called 'grey area' with scores of less than 1, indicating the high probability of distress. Z Score is used widely by financial auditors, accountants, money managers, loan processers, wealth advisers, as well as day traders. In the last 25 years, many financial models that utilize z score has been proved to be successful as a predictor of corporate bankruptcy.

According to the company's disclosures, International Business Machines has a Z Score of 2.6. This is 80.67% lower than that of the IT Services sector and 66.58% lower than that of the Information Technology industry. The z score for all United States stocks is 70.18% higher than that of the company.

International Z Score Peer Comparison

Stock peer comparison is one of the most widely used and accepted methods of equity analyses. It analyses International Business' direct or indirect competition against its Z Score to detect undervalued stocks with similar characteristics or determine the stocks which would be a good addition to a portfolio. Peer analysis of International Business could also be used in its relative valuation, which is a method of valuing International Business by comparing valuation metrics of similar companies.
International Business is currently under evaluation in z score category among related companies.

International Business Current Valuation Drivers

We derive many important indicators used in calculating different scores of International Business from analyzing International Business' financial statements. These drivers represent accounts that assess International Business' ability to generate profits relative to its revenue, operating costs, and shareholders' equity. Below are some of International Business' important valuation drivers and their relationship over time.
201820192020202120222023 (projected)
Net Income Per Employee24.89 K24.57 K14.85 K18.67 K5.26 K5.4 K
Revenue Per Employee227.01 K201.01 K195.63 K186.44 K194.44 K228.94 K
Average Assets123.07 B146.85 B154.43 B142.91 B128.47 B141.37 B
Earnings Before Interest Taxes and Depreciation Amortization EBITDA16.55 B16.89 B12.21 B13.44 B7.03 B7.22 B
Earnings Before Interest Taxes and Depreciation Amortization USD16.55 B16.89 B12.21 B13.44 B7.03 B7.22 B
Earnings before Tax11.35 B9.49 B4.23 B5.87 B1.01 B1.04 B
Average Equity18.32 B18.23 B20.59 B21.11 B20.12 B21.22 B
Enterprise Value138.49 B179.98 B168 B171.04 B173.23 B168.7 B
Free Cash Flow11.53 B12.4 B15.15 B10.41 B8.57 B9.89 B
Invested Capital80.01 B100.87 B100.03 B78.41 B74.63 B85.87 B
Invested Capital Average81.26 B100.15 B99.89 B84.95 B75.99 B86.63 B
Market Capitalization103.3 B118.71 B112.17 B119.87 B127.38 B128.05 B
Tangible Asset Value84.03 B78.73 B88.47 B63.85 B60.11 B65.04 B
Working Capital10.92 B719 M(704 M)(4.08 B)(2.39 B)(2.45 B)

International Business ESG Sustainability

Some studies have found that companies with high sustainability scores are getting higher valuations than competitors with lower social-engagement activities. While most ESG disclosures are voluntary and do not directly affect the long term financial condition, International Business' sustainability indicators can be used to identify proper investment strategies using environmental, social, and governance scores that are crucial to International Business' managers, analysts, and investors.
Environment Score
Governance Score
Social Score

International Business Institutional Holders

Institutional Holdings refers to the ownership stake in International Business that is held by large financial organizations, pension funds or endowments. Institutions may purchase large blocks of International Business' outstanding shares and can exert considerable influence upon its management. Institutional holders may also work to push the share price higher once they own the stock. Extensive social media coverage, TV shows, articles in high-profile magazines, and presentations at investor conferences help move the stock higher, increasing International Business' value.
Last TransactionTypeSharesValue
Vanguard Group Inc2022-12-31Common Shares80.1 M11.3 B
State Street Corp2022-12-31Common Shares53.4 M7.5 B
Wells Fargo Company2022-12-31Common Shares4.8 M679.8 M
Ubs Asset Management Americas Inc2022-12-31Common Shares4.5 M634.4 M
Swiss National Bank2022-12-31Common Shares3.7 M517.2 M
Sumitomo Mitsui Trust Holdings Inc2022-12-31Common SharesM428.8 M
Ubs Group Ag2022-12-31Common SharesM425 M
Stifel Financial Corp2022-12-31Common Shares1.8 M258.2 M
Victory Capital Management Inc2022-12-31Common Shares1.2 M170.5 M
State Board Of Administration Of Florida Retirement System2022-12-31Common SharesM142.4 M
Susquehanna International Group Llp2022-12-31Common Shares993.4 K140 M

International Fundamentals

About International Business Fundamental Analysis

The Macroaxis Fundamental Analysis modules help investors analyze International Business Machines's financials across various querterly and yearly statements, indicators and fundamental ratios. We help investors to determine the real value of International Business using virtually all public information available. We use both quantitative as well as qualitative analysis to arrive at the intrinsic value of International Business Machines based on its fundamental data. In general, a quantitative approach, as applied to this company, focuses on analyzing financial statements comparatively, whereas a qaualitative method uses data that is important to a company's growth but cannot be measured and presented in a numerical way.
Please read more on our fundamental analysis page.
International Business Machines Corporation provides integrated solutions and services worldwide. International Business Machines Corporation was incorporated in 1911 and is headquartered in Armonk, New York. International Business operates under Information Technology Services classification in the United States and is traded on New York Stock Exchange. It employs 282100 people.

Be your own money manager

Our tools can tell you how much better you can do entering a position in International Business without increasing your portfolio risk or giving up the expected return. As an individual investor, you need to find a reliable way to track all your investment portfolios. However, your requirements will often be based on how much of the process you decide to do yourself. In addition to allowing all investors analytical transparency into all their portfolios, our tools can evaluate risk-adjusted returns of your individual positions relative to your overall portfolio.

Did you try this?

Run Price Exposure Probability Now


Price Exposure Probability

Analyze equity upside and downside potential for a given time horizon across multiple markets
All  Next Launch Module

Becoming a Better Investor with Macroaxis

Macroaxis puts the power of mathematics on your side. We analyze your portfolios and positions such as International Business using complex mathematical models and algorithms, but make them easy to understand. There is no real person involved in your portfolio analysis. We perform a number of calculations to compute absolute and relative portfolio volatility, correlation between your assets, value at risk, expected return as well as over 100 different fundamental and technical indicators.

Build Optimal Portfolios

Align your risk with return expectations

Fix your portfolio
By capturing your risk tolerance and investment horizon Macroaxis technology of instant portfolio optimization will compute exactly how much risk is acceptable for your desired return expectations
Check out International Business Piotroski F Score and International Business Valuation analysis. To learn how to invest in International Stock please use our How to Invest in International Business guide. Note that the International Business information on this page should be used as a complementary analysis to other International Business' statistical models used to find the right mix of equity instruments to add to your existing portfolios or create a brand new portfolio. You can also try Alpha Finder module to use alpha and beta coefficients to find investment opportunities after accounting for the risk.

Complementary Tools for International Stock analysis

When running International Business price analysis, check to measure International Business' market volatility, profitability, liquidity, solvency, efficiency, growth potential, financial leverage, and other vital indicators. We have many different tools that can be utilized to determine how healthy International Business is operating at the current time. Most of International Business' value examination focuses on studying past and present price action to predict the probability of International Business' future price movements. You can analyze the entity against its peers and financial market as a whole to determine factors that move International Business' price. Additionally, you may evaluate how the addition of International Business to your portfolios can decrease your overall portfolio volatility.
Idea Breakdown
Analyze constituents of all Macroaxis ideas. Macroaxis investment ideas are predefined, sector-focused investing themes
Headlines Timeline
Stay connected to all market stories and filter out noise. Drill down to analyze hype elasticity
Efficient Frontier
Plot and analyze your portfolio and positions against risk-return landscape of the market.
Alpha Finder
Use alpha and beta coefficients to find investment opportunities after accounting for the risk
CEO Directory
Screen CEOs from public companies around the world
Equity Analysis
Research over 250,000 global equities including funds, stocks and ETFs to find investment opportunities
Is International Business' industry expected to grow? Or is there an opportunity to expand the business' product line in the future? Factors like these will boost the valuation of International Business. If investors know International will grow in the future, the company's valuation will be higher. The financial industry is built on trying to define current growth potential and future valuation accurately. All the valuation information about International Business listed above have to be considered, but the key to understanding future value is determining which factors weigh more heavily than others.
Quarterly Earnings Growth
Dividend Share
Earnings Share
Revenue Per Share
Return On Assets
The market value of International Business is measured differently than its book value, which is the value of International that is recorded on the company's balance sheet. Investors also form their own opinion of International Business' value that differs from its market value or its book value, called intrinsic value, which is International Business' true underlying value. Investors use various methods to calculate intrinsic value and buy a stock when its market value falls below its intrinsic value. Because International Business' market value can be influenced by many factors that don't directly affect International Business' underlying business (such as a pandemic or basic market pessimism), market value can vary widely from intrinsic value.
Please note, there is a significant difference between International Business' value and its price as these two are different measures arrived at by different means. Investors typically determine International Business value by looking at such factors as earnings, sales, fundamental and technical indicators, competition as well as analyst projections. However, International Business' price is the amount at which it trades on the open market and represents the number that a seller and buyer find agreeable to each party.