|ER[a]||=||Expected return on investing in Alcoa|
|STD||=||Standard Deviation of Alcoa|
|N||=||Number of points for the period|
|Z-SCORE||=||Number of standard deviations above or below the mean|
Value At Risk ComparisonValue At Risk is used by risk managers in order to measure and control the level of risk which the firm undertakes. The risk manager job is to ensure that risks are not taken beyond the level at which the firm can absorb the losses of a probable worst outcome. VAR can be defined as the loss level that will not be exceeded with a certain confidence level during a certain period of time.
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